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What Clues Help Us Understand the Lives of People in the Past?

What Clues Help Us Understand the Lives of People in the Past?

By Courtney Agenten (2019)

Primary sources are clues archaeologists use to interpret the past

Mount Vesuvius In Eruption 1817
“The Eruption of Mount Vesuvius” was painted by M.W Turner in 1817. Misconception Alert! The eruption of Vesuvius did NOT have lava flow. Instead, it had a different type of flow that was much more dangerous, a pyroclastic flow! A violent, Plinian eruption blasts out gas with enormous force and explosions shatter the magma in dust and ash. Scorching, glowing clouds of ash and fumes race down the sides of the volcano. This is much more dangerous than a lava flow.

Different types of volcanoes erupt differently. When volcanoes erupt they “give off a vast range of products from steam and gas to molten lava, ash, pumice, and boulders, all of which are ultimately derived from magma, the molten material that rises from beneath the Earth’s crust” (Scarth 2009). In an oversimplified model, volcanic eruptions can be grouped under four main categories: mild, moderate, vigorous, and violent.

Stratigraphy Of Pompeii
Stratigraphy of the deposits of A.D. 79 in excavations west and south of Vesuvius (Sigurdsson, Haraldur, Stanford Cashdollar and Stephen R. J. Sparks. ‘The Eruption of Vesuvius in AD 79: Reconstruction from Historical and Volcanological Evidence. American Journal of Archaeology, Vol. 86, No. 1 (Jan. 1982), pp. 39-51. Boston, MA: Archaeological Institute of America).

The eruption of Mount Vesuvius in A.D. 79 was violent and one of the most famous because it destroyed, buried, and immortalized the towns of Pompeii and Herculaneum, and Roman villas in Campania. They were entombed for over seventeen hundred years, until archaeologists slowly began to reveal their secrets to the world. “Thus, the eruption destroyed—and preserved—the most famous archaeological sites in the world, and they, in turn have helped make Vesuvius the most famous of all volcanoes” (Scarth 2009).

How can we learn about the eruption of Vesuvius in A.D. 79? Scientific studies of the eruption provide information about the phases of the eruption supported by layers of ash that show evidence of pyroclastic flows. Plus, primary sources like letters written by an eye-witness can help archaeologists interpret the event. By analyzing how thick the layers are, what type of volcanic material they contain, and how the deposits were distributed, geologists have been able to reconstruct the different phases of the eruption. The first phase of the eruption was characterized by a widespread dispersal of pumice from a high eruptive column, that rose to the height of almost 20 miles. During this phase white and gray pumice dispersed to the southeast of the volcano, traveling a distance of 43 miles. The second phase of the eruption is characterized by the collapse of the column and pyroclastic flows and surges. This phase caused major damages and extensive loss of life within 6 to 10 miles of the volcano. The surges can be detected as layers of thin ash. Thick, massive layers indicate pyroclastic flows.

The third phase consists of a deposit of lapilli.

Voices of the Ancients: Archaeology and Oral Tradition

Voices of the Ancients: Archaeology and Oral Tradition

By Samantha Kirkley, Professional Development Director
Virgil Johnson Goshute Elder
Virgil Johnson, a Goshute Elder

Southern Utah University (SUU), home of our Utah Project Archaeology Program, received a Landmarks of American History and Culture from the National Endowment for the Humanities (NEH). The project will employ the rich archaeological record, four notable landmarks, the oral traditions of contemporary descendant communities, and primary sources to illuminate the ancient Fremont. The Fremont, horticulturalists and part-time foragers, thrived in what is now the state of Utah between AD 1 and AD 1300. We will use four important landmarks (Parowan Valley Fremont sites, Cedar Breaks National Monument, Fremont Indian State Park, and Frontier Homestead State Park) to explore the impacts of climate change on cultures, how humans meet their universal needs for food and shelter, and how people communicated the circumstances of their lives through art work etched and painted on rock walls.

In the words of Utah writer Terry Tempest Williams (1989) “… of what value are objects of a past people if we don’t allow ourselves to be touched by them. They are alive. They have a voice.” Workshop participants will learn how to hear the voices of the past through engaging with artifacts, living descendants, and the magnificent landscape of southwestern Utah.

The voice of American Indians is a true ‘National Treasure’ and has long been disregarded. Their oral histories span all of human history and explain many of the natural occurrences inexplicable to scientists. Their cultural knowledge is irreplaceable and valuable to all. Oral histories of descendant community members representing the five tribes of Utah (Shoshone, Goshute, Ute, Paiute, and Navajo) claim Fremont ancestry. When asked what he thought happened to the Ancient Fremont, Paiute Elder Rick Pikyavit, simply said, “We are still here.” The Fremont are still here.

Fremont Indian State Park
Fremont Indian State Park

Sadly, the history and contributions of indigenous peoples are often omitted from American history and from state history. People who are invisible in the past continue to be invisible in contemporary society. The main goal of archaeology and of this project is to bring the rich history of these peoples to teachers and their students and help Native Americans take their rightful place in the national narrative and in present-day society. By honoring the history and cultural heritage of past peoples we are honoring the living descendants with whom we share citizenship.

Teachers attending the workshop will engage in meaningful interactions with tribal elders who are enthusiastic about sharing their culture and knowledge. Participants will forge friendships that transcend culture and time working together to bring the indigenous voice to the forefront and redefine the American narrative. This rare opportunity allows teachers and their students to know the Fremont through their living descendants.


P1000607 (1) (1)
Documenting rock art

The Voices of the Ancients workshops will bring 72 teachers from across the nation to southwest Utah in the summer of 2020 for two week-long institutes. Applicants can choose to attend Session 1 (June 28-July 3) or

Teacher Appreciation Week 2024

Teacher Appreciation Week 2024 Blog

Discover Tree Ring Dating and How People Adapted to Climate Change

“The Moquitch haven’t gone anywhere, they have just changed. A drought came and the  water stopped running. They had to move out of this area…They changed.” 
- Rena Pikyavit, Southern Paiute Tribal Member

Rena Pikyavit Fremont Indian State Park

Rena Pikyavit, Southern Paiute tribal member, providing interpretation at Fremont Indian State Park.

The Moquitch (Fremont people) grew corn, beans, and squash. They hunted wild animals and ate wild plants to complete their diet. Corn was the most important of these food sources because the seeds could be dried and stored for three or more years. Corn needs warm soil, warm weather, and water and requires a three-month frost-free growing season.  If it is too cold in the spring, corn seeds will not start growing.  Too much heat can dry out the soil. Too much water can flood corn fields and wash away the plants.  Too little water means the plants won’t produce much food.

Weather is the combination of temperature, rain or snow, wind, and other conditions we experience daily. Climate is the combination of many years of weather that might be hot or cold, dry or wet. During Fremont times the climate was warm and wet enough to allow farming of corn, beans, and squash. Weather varied from year to year, and from region to region within the lands occupied by the Fremont. Because they could store corn seeds for years, they could still have food for two or three bad years.

Landscape At Fremont Indian State Park

Landscape at Fremont Indian State Park in Utah. Photo by Courtney Agenten.

Teachers Observing Rock Art At Fremont Indian State Park

Teachers observe rock art (writing) at Fremont Indian State Park in Utah. Photo by Courtney Agenten.

Teacher Climbing Into A Fremont Pithouse Replica At Fremont Indian State Park
Teacher climbing into a Fremont pithouse replica at Fremont Indian State Park in Utah. Photo by Courtney Agenten.

The Fremont people could not change the climate, but they could change how they lived in response to it. A hot dry climate or a cold climate reduced corn production, so they might have needed to find more food for their families. A warm wet climate meant that they might have had more food than they needed and could have traded with others. Sometimes the weather within the Fremont homeland in any given year was hot and dry in one area and warm and wet in another.

Archaeologists think that Fremont people responded to changes in climate in two general ways. The first is where and how they lived. They could choose to move to another area within the Fremont homeland or they could move higher in elevation where the weather was cooler. They could choose to live in large villages where they could work together to irrigate fields and grow more food, or they could live in family groups and farm over a wider area to take advantage of small, scattered water sources.

Archaeologists have identified evidence that the Fremont people responded to climate change by changing the way they interacted with each other. In larger villages people who wanted

The Power of Descendant Community Voices in the Classroom

The Power of Descendant Community Voices in the Classroom

By Erika Malo, Special Projects Coordinator (2020)

Today, we want to focus on something that is at the core of Project Archaeology curricula – Descendant Community Member Voices. We want students to link archaeology to the people connected to it today. Understanding this connection helps students explore the importance of archaeology, their own culture and the culture of other people, and how they can become engaged citizens. Project Archaeology’s founder, Dr. Jeanne Moe, wrote about how descendent community member collaboration was essential to the creation of our curricula. The collaboration resulted in descendant community members acting as a guide throughout the curricula. This voice not only shares vital information about the archaeological site and its connection to a culture, but the person also shares about their life today.

Project Archaeology curricula teach four overarching Enduring Understandings:

1. Understanding the past is essential for understanding the present and shaping the future.
2. Learning about cultures, past and present, is essential for living in a pluralistic society and world.
3. Archaeology is a systematic way to learn about past cultures.
4. Stewardship of archaeological sites and artifacts is everyone’s responsibility.

Descendant community member voices, when combined with archaeology, present great opportunities for classroom discussions around race, socioeconomic differences, gender identity, and many other topics that can be difficult to address in the classroom. Facilitating these kinds of conversations helps students meet the four Enduring Understandings. Students who learn about culture, critical thinking, and multiple viewpoints, as well as understanding those topics in relation to archaeology, have the potential to become engaged citizens that shape the future, support a pluralistic society, and are agents in the stewardship of archaeological sites.

While piloting Project Archaeology: Investigating Shelter’s regional investigation, Investigating a Shotgun House, researchers Linda Levstik and A. Gwynn Henderson (2015) used the curriculum to represent the perspectives of residents in the working class neighborhood of Davis Bottom in Lexington, KY. Davis Bottom was a historically integrated community that started as a neighborhood for free or newly freed African Americans after the Civil War. Students learn about residents through oral histories and documentary films that feature the people who live or lived in Davis Bottom, census records, and the material objects from archaeological excavations of a neighborhood house. Levstik and Henderson reflected on the connection between archaeology, descendant community member voices, and race.

In emphasizing the importance of understanding working class people and the significance of integration in Davis Bottom, students called attention to the power of studying race as a connective rather than divisive feature of community, and identifying collective agency as a powerful response to racism. As one of the seventh graders explained, people were “willing it to stand up for their rights, stand up against racist people” in order to “change… how life would be for future generations” (HM7).
(Levstik and Henderson 2015)

Students are the future. Curricula that feature descendent community members’ voices as experts, residents, archaeologists, scientists, and activists can

The Place, the People, and the Preservation of Fourmile Petroglyph

The Place, the People, and the Preservation of Fourmile Petroglyph

By Courtney Agenten
Sand Gulch Quarry. Tribes traveled along Fourmile Creek to the quarry to get stones for making hunting tools. Photo by Heston Mosher

Sand Gulch Quarry. Tribes traveled along Fourmile Creek to the quarry to get stones for making hunting tools. Photo by Heston Mosher


THE PLACE

Fourmile Petroglyph is a landmark along Fourmile Creek in the Arkansas River Basin of Southcentral Colorado. The sandstone boulder is on the side of a county road north of Canon City, Colorado. Following the creek leads to a campsite and what was once a quarry for stone tool making. Long bands of limestone cliffs dominate the landscape north of the rock art site. Stunning rock features paired with the piñon pine and juniper vegetation enhance the dramatic vistas and a picturesque camping environment.

Fourmile Creek Petroglyph. Photo by Heston Mosher
Fourmile Creek Petroglyph. Photo by Heston Mosher

Fourmile Petroglyph rock art site consists of a single petroglyph panel pecked on the southeast face of a sandstone boulder. The petroglyph panel is a series of stipple-pecked circles, abstract lines, and tridents. While most rock art in this region is attributed to the Ute tribe, the tridents indicate a possible connection to an ancestor of the Pawnee tribe as the artist. For the Pawnee:

Representational art work was the province of men whose purpose it was to communicate with sky powers in performing public ceremonial duties, hunting, or warfare. Their designs (on pipe stems, war shields, musical instruments, etc.) had to be easily recognizable to both their “audiences” (villagers, prey, or enemy) and the deities. Birds were messengers who conveyed information between the heaven and the earth, and they appeared frequently in the men’s art work. Stars (four- and five-pointed) were another important Pawnee motif (Willets 1997, 45).

One of the prominent interpretations of the petroglyph panel is that it depicts a constellation. According to Warren Pratt, a citizen of the Pawnee tribe, the Pawnee had the best star maps of all the Plains Indians.


THE PEOPLE
(adapted from Willets 1997)

The ancestors of the Pawnee lived on the plains in the place we now call Nebraska and parts of Kansas. The earliest earthlodges can be dated to A.D. 400. Oral history tells that the first Pawnee man was taught how to build an earthlodge by animals at a Sacred Site on the Missouri River two thousand years ago. Each of the tribe’s four bands built their gardening towns along the drainages on the Solomon River, Smoky Hill River, Blue River, Republican River (north-central Kansas) and the Platte and Loup Rivers (south-central Nebraska). The four bands of the Pawnee tribe are the Chaui (Grand), the Kitkihahki (Republican), the Pitahawirata (Tappage), and the Skidi (Wolf). The Pawnee called themselves “chahiksichahiks,” meaning “people from people.”

A Pawnee family standing outside the entrance to an earthlodge in Nebraska more than 100 years ago. Smithsonian Institution.
A Pawnee family standing outside the entrance to an earthlodge in Nebraska more than 100 years ago. Smithsonian Institution.

The movement of the stars above and the seasons of the earth below guided the village through cycles of work and ceremony. A complex belief system, attuned to celestial rhythms, defines the times for hunting and for gardening. In the

Medicine Rocks State Park: As Beautiful a Place as I Have Ever Seen

Medicine Rocks State Park: As Beautiful a Place as I Have Ever Seen

By Sabre Moore, Director of Carter County Museum

Medicine Rocks State Park

The park is located in southeastern Montana, 11 miles north of Ekalaka and 25 miles southwest of the town of Baker. It encompasses 330.34 acres of low rolling grassland prairie hills interspersed with sandstone formations that include caves, columns, pillars, flat-topped towers, holes, arches, and spires.

Medicine Rocks Vintage Photo 155 1480
Medicine Rocks, vintage photo courtesy of Carter County Museum.

The history of Medicine Rocks extends long into the past, back to times when the area was said to have been used by the Crow, Northern Cheyenne, and Sioux nations for sacred and ceremonial purposes. EuroAmericans referred to the area as The Hole-In-Rock as evidenced by early military maps, including a “War Department Map of the Yellowstone and Missouri Rivers and their Tributaries” made in 1859-60. By 1880, settlers started moving into the Medicine Rocks area, followed by hunters and cattle ranchers.

In 1883 Teddy Roosevelt visited Medicine Rocks (Butte) and is quoted in his journal stating the future state park was “as fantastically beautiful a place as I have ever seen.” In 1919 the first homestead records were recorded in Medicine Rocks State Park area. The purchase of the county land decreased the future park size. Carter County had ownership of the remaining land until the county commissioners deeded the land to the state of Montana in 1957 for a state park.

The main attraction that brings people to the park are the unique sandstone pillars that have historic pictographs and petroglyphs painted and carved on them respectively. The distinctive Medicine Rocks State Park geology is estimated to be between 60 and 65 million years old as it is part of the Fort Union sandstone ridge system that has been eroded into sandstone pillars. Most of the park occurs within the Fort Union Formation and the sandstone shapes found at Medicine Rocks State Park were caused by deposits from ancient tides and sand bars.

In 2017, Medicine Rocks State Park was inducted into the National Historic of Historic Places for its cultural and natural resources. Rock art and historic inscriptions, many with dates, indicates continual visitation and use of the site. Inscriptions related to indigenous, a few suggesting early 1800 visitation, followed by early Euro-American inscriptions indicating late 1870s-early 1880s settlement of the area, continuing right through to the present cover the sandstone outcrops of the park.

Although a small number of stone rings, rock shelters, a buried lithic component, and a light scatter of lithics are found within the park, petroglyphs, mostly in the form of historic inscriptions, dominate the resources found throughout the park, as well as throughout the immediate region. Although the earliest archaeological remains in the area, dating back to around 11,000 years B.P., are associated with the Mill Iron Site, 28 miles southeast of Medicine Rocks State Park, Medicine Rocks itself has not yet yielded evidence of such antiquity. Artifacts identified at Medicine Rocks

Can an Assistant State Archaeologist Use Project Archaeology

Can an Assistant State Archaeologist use Project Archaeology – the answer is Yes!

By Rebecca Simon, Colorado State Archaeologist (2020)
Indiana Jones and Becca Simon
“Do I look like an Archaeologist now?” – (My take on the “What do you think and Archaeologist looks like?” lesson, right – Sept 2013, left from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Indiana_Jones)

Rebecca (Becca) Simon is the Assistant State Archaeologist in the Office of Archaeology and Historic Preservation at History Colorado. Growing up in Washington, D.C., Becca visited the Smithsonian often and fell in love with history and archaeology. Becca’s experience includes teaching, interpretation, collections management, and cultural resource management. She has field experience in Colorado, Wyoming, Utah, Kansas, and southern Jordan. Her interests include Southwest archaeology, the protohistoric era, public outreach, preservation, skiing, ultimate frisbee, roller derby, and most importantly her dog, Minnie.

At some point between December 2007 and the end of January 2008, I was sitting in my tucked away office above the loading dock of the National Museum of Natural History. I was an intern for the former illustrations researcher of the Handbook of North American Indians and emeritus anthropologist, Joanna Scherer. I spent most of my time deciphering curly-cues and squiggles of ethnographic field notes from the turn of the twentieth century. Joanna walked in one day and handed me a flyer one day and said, “You need to do this” (I am 5 foot 11 inches, but her 5 foot something-self was not to be messed with).

The flyer gave details of a “facilitator workshop” by Project Archaeology. I didn’t really understand what Project Archaeology was beyond “educational” and having to do with kids. Prior to making the leap into archaeology professionally, I worked for nursery schools and after-school programs for almost ten years and had a lot of hands-on experience with education. Knowing that I ran from the office each day to go to my second of three jobs at the after-school program, Joanna made the easy connection. I don’t think either of us thought it would be life-changing, but it kind of was.

In February 2008, I received my “Project Archaeology Facilitator” certificate learning the curriculum, Investigating Shelter, in a draft form (the book wasn’t published until 2009). During that workshop, I learned there was a very direct way for me to use my crudely acquired education background and my passion to be an archaeologist AT THE SAME TIME.
My mind was slightly blown, but not particularly forward-thinking. So for a few days, I thought I was going to make some big moves, but the reality was I went back to deciding if it was an “s” or an “f” and didn’t think about Project Archaeology for a couple of years.

Getting a job in archaeology is not easy. I have been fortunate to be at the right place at the right time with the right email address on several occasions. Making the move from Washington, DC, to Colorado involved a lot of faith and luck. I hoped I was going to become a technician for

Archaeology and Accessibility

Archaeology and Accessibility

By Valerie Feathers, Louisiana State Coordinator
Valerie Feathers Project Archaeology and Outreach and Education Coordinator, Louisiana Division of Archaeology, Department of Culture, Recreation, and Tourism
Valerie Feathers Project Archaeology and Outreach and Education Coordinator, Louisiana Division of Archaeology, Department of Culture, Recreation, and Tourism

As archaeologists, we wear many hats – shovel bums, researchers, theoretical discussants, grant writers, etc. However, the hat I (Val) prefer to wear is educator. I joined Project Archaeology in 2018 as the Louisiana State Coordinator. I also work full-time as the Outreach Coordinator for the Louisiana Division of Archaeology in the Department of Culture, Recreation, and Tourism. I didn’t know what to expect when I attended my first Project Archaeology Leadership Academy.

At the conclusion of the Academy (which is awesome and if you’ve not applied to attend, then I highly suggest you do), we had a chance to meet with current interim direction, Erika Malo, and Jeanne Moe, the former director. I had several questions and ideas, but the one that struck me the most was “How do we make archaeology accessible?”

I remember talking to Erika and Jeanne about the lack of options for people with disabilities. We spoke at length about curriculum design, cost, and the need for creative partnerships. I left the Academy with one goal – to make Project Archaeology curricula accessible. It took several months to find a creative partner, but the opportunity arose when I met with the Louisiana School for the Visually Impaired (LSVI). They wanted to know if we had any artifacts from the Poverty Point World Heritage Site that the students could feel and if someone would be willing to give a presentation on the site. I jumped at the opportunity. I was so excited! I showed them the Division of Archaeology’s teacher kits and said we could adapt them to suit their needs. While reviewing the notes after that initial meeting, I thought, “I can do better.”

I went back to the principal and assistant director and asked if I could implement certain material from the Project Archaeology curriculum along with the Poverty Point teacher kits. They mentioned that the timeline would be tight, as they were doing a summer camp focused on STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math) activities. I thought, “This is it!” Here’s the thing about Project Archaeology – it’s all STEM and STEAM (Science, Technology, Engineering, Art, and Math) materials. The creators of the curricula have carefully crafted each activity in such a manner that an educator can teach math, science, social studies, art, and engineering using archaeology as the focus point. I explained this to the staff at LSVI. They were cautiously overjoyed.

So, we had the materials…but how to adapt them to students who are visually impaired? Turns out, you have to be really creative and have colleagues willing to entertain and implement your crazy ideas. After many design sessions, trips to the craft store, and buying stock in glue guns, we created a three-week Discover Archaeology program adapted from materials found in Investigating Shelter, Investigating a Fremont Pithouse, Intrigue of the Past, and

Accessibility for Digital Outreach

Accessibility for Digital Outreach

By Elizabeth Reetz, Director of Strategic Initiatives, University of Iowa Office of the State Archaeologist (2020)

No one imagined a month ago that we’d be where we are today—businesses shuttered and schools closed, with teaching and learning done through web-based virtual classrooms and social media. Although 2020 has already felt like the longest year ever, some things are moving very fast! Those of us in the education and outreach world are rushing in to offer remote programs and services for school children learning from home and the general public looking for educational distractions. Many of us are diving into realms we may have only dipped a toe into before, including video production and social media and web-based live streaming.

Remote WorkThose in the Project Archaeology network are continually acknowledged for creating some of the best archaeology education materials available. In my opinion, this is because we take the time to carefully outline goals and objectives, applicability to teaching standards, and effective assessment tools, and apply research-based best practices for pedagogy and instruction to our programming and curricula. Recently, we learned about archaeology and accessibility and an amazing pilot project for visually impaired learners from Network coordinators Valerie Feathers and Gwynn Henderson. Regarding the digital realm though, it’s fairly new to many of us, and the pivot to providing online resources is happening pretty fast! But because we’re looked to as leaders in our field, we need to make sure we’re modeling best practices for accessibility with our online resources and following regulations put forth by the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA).

In the Project Archaeology network, most of the organizations we work for fall under title II entities (State and local government services) and title III entities (public accommodations and commercial facilities) of the ADA. This means that we must provide aids and services when needed to communicate effectively with people who have communication disabilities. I certainly don’t have the knowledge or expertise to cover all the various types of aids and services for this blog, so my goal is to address accessibility concerns in some of the common types of outreach becoming popular during this pandemic. I feel like I’m barely scratching the surface here, but I hope this helps, and I encourage you to look to your institutions and agencies for additional guidance, tools, and solutions!

Pre-recorded Videos

Youtube BlogIf you want to have more visual control over your digital content or are intimidated by unpredictability and intimacy of going live, you can create and upload a pre-recorded video to the web or social media. One very important factor to consider when creating video content is accessibility for individuals who are deaf or hard of hearing. My university requires that all videos created by its units and departments must have closed captions. Closed captions also greatly benefit low-literacy and English as a Second Language viewers!

Captions are not just subtitles. You should use captions to indicate silent pauses or breaks, background music and sound effects,

Investigating the Clovis Child Burial

Investigating the Clovis Child Burial

By Courtney Agenten

There is a lot we can learn from the past and the people who first lived here. A profound story. A story of family.

Archaeological discoveries have a way of igniting our curiosity and connecting us to our own humanity.   The discovery of an 18 - 24 month old boy buried by his family thousands of years ago provides a connection, a human connection to the past.  For contemporary Native American peoples this boy is a direct ancestor, as evidenced by recent scientific research. He and his family's complete expression of love and grief, burying him with 125 stone tools and objects including an heirloom elk antler, have given us so much insight into this ancient family. We learned one tangible way they expressed their love and grief when they poured their possessions into his grave: a testament, a memorial, to their way of life.

Who is this boy? He has been called the Anzick boy or Clovis child. His is the only known Clovis age burial and the stone tools and bones found with him are the largest and most complete assemblage of Clovis artifacts ever found. Recently, new information has emerged about this boy as a result of extracting his DNA and producing a genome for the child which provides a more in depth understanding of, "Who were the first people?". This child's genome revealed that he is a direct ancestor to 80% of all living Native Americans.

How to educate your students on recent Archaeology Discoveries:

One way to help students understand this discovery and the importance of archaeology is to have students read news articles on archaeology finds and reflect on the implications for their family and community as well as the significance of the scientific, cultural discovery for the future. Project Archaeology wants to take this opportunity to provide teachers and students with a twist on the typical Current Event Report, by issuing an Archaeology Discovery Report worksheet students can use in conjunction with a news story. It will enable students to discover the significance of artifacts, sites and remains as they summarize the key points of the story, cite their source, and reflect on how discoveries of the past shape the future.

Project Archaeology's personal connection to this discovery

Dr Shane DoyleProject Archaeology is immensely proud of our friend, tribal consultant, and fellow curriculum writer and teacher, Dr. Shane Doyle, Apsáalooke, who is an educational and cultural consultant  from Crow Agency, Montana. He was asked to serve as the tribal liaison for the repatriation (reburial) of the Anzick child.  Dr. Doyle is a  colleague of Crystal Alegria (Montana Coordinator) and Jeanne Moe (Project Archaeology Director). He is an inspiring educator who started his career teaching 4th and 5th grade in Lodge Grass, Montana and now holds a masters in Native American Studies and a PhD in Ecu.   Throughout his news appearances and lectures he provides